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New 3GPP Release-17 Study Item on NR-Lite
by email@example.com (Zahid Ghadialy) on August 13, 2019 at 6:54 am
3GPP TSG RAN#84 was held from June 3 – 6, 2019 at Newport Beach, California. Along with a lot of other interesting topics for discussion, one of the new ones for Release-17 was called NR-Lite (not 5G-lite). Here are some of the things that was being discussed for the Study item.In RP-190831, Nokia proposed:NR-Lite should address new use cases with IoT-type of requirements that cannot be met by eMTC and NB-IoT:Higher data rate & reliability and lower latency than eMTC & NB-IoTLower cost/complexity and longer battery life than NR eMBBWider coverage than URLLCRequirements and use cases –Data rates up to 100 Mbps to support e.g. live video feed, visual production control, process automationLatency of around [10-30] ms to support e.g. remote drone operation, cooperative farm machinery, time-critical sensing and feedback, remote vehicle operationModule cost comparable to LTECoverage enhancement of [10-15]dB compared to URLLCBattery life [2-4X] longer than eMBBEnable single network to serve all uses in industrial environmentURLLC, MBB & positioningThe spider chart on the right shows the requirements for different categories of devices like NB-IoT, eMTC (LTE-M), NR-LITE, URLLC and eMBB.The understanding in the industry is that over the next 5 years, a lot of 4G spectrum, in addition to 2G/3G spectrum, would have been re-farmed for 5G. By introducing NR-Lite, there would be no requirement to maintain multiple RATs. Also, NR-Lite can take advantage of 5G system architecture and features such as slicing, flow-based QoS, etc.Qualcomm's views in RP-190844 were very similar to those of Nokia's. In their presentation, the existing 5G devices are billed as 'Premium 5G UEs' while NR-Lite devices are described as 'Low tier 5G UEs'. This category is sub-divided into Industrial sensors/video monitoring, Low-end wearables and Relaxed IoT.The presentation provides more details on PDCCH Design, Co-existence of premium and Low Tier UEs, Peak Power and Battery Life Optimizations, Contention-Based UL for Small Data Transmission, Relaying for Wearable and Mesh for Relaxed IoTEricsson's presentation described NR-Lite for Industrial Sensors and Wearables in RP-191047. RP-191048 was submitted as New SID (Study Item Description) on NR-Lite for Industrial Sensors and Wearables. The SID provides the following details:The usage scenarios that have been identified for 5G are enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive machine-type communication (mMTC), and time critical machine-type communication (cMTC). In particular, mMTC and cMTC are associated with novel IoT use cases that are targeted in vertical industries. In the 3GPP study on “self-evaluation towards IMT-2020 submission” it was confirmed that NB IoT and LTE M fulfill the IMT-2020 requirements for mMTC and can be certified as 5G technologies. For cMTC support, URLLC was introduced in Release 15 for both LTE and NR, and NR URLLC is further enhanced in Release 16 within the enhanced URLLC (eURLLC) and Industrial IoT work items.One important objective of 5G is to enable connected industries. 5G connectivity can serve as catalyst for next wave of industrial transformation and digitalization, which improve flexibility, enhance productivity and efficiency, and improve operational safety. The transformed, digitalized, and connected industry is often referred to as Industry 4.0. Industrial sensors and actuators are prevalently used in many industries, already today. Vast varieties of sensors and actuators are also used in automotive, transport, power grid, logistics, and manufacturing industries. They are deployed for analytics, diagnostics, monitoring, asset tracking, process control, regulatory control, supervisory control, safety control, etc. It is desirable to connect these sensors and actuators to 5G networks. The massive industrial wireless sensor network (IWSN) use cases and requirements described in TR 22.804, TS 22.104 and TS 22.261 do include not only cMTC services with very high requirements, but also relatively low-end services with the requirement of small device form factors, and/or being completely wireless with a battery life of several years. The most low-end services could already be met by NB-IoT and LTE-M but there are, excluding URLLC, more high-end services that would be challenging. In summary, many industrial sensor requirements fall in-between the well-defined performance objectives which have driven the design of eMBB, URLLC, and mMTC. Thus, many of the industrial sensors have connectivity requirements that are not yet best served by the existing 3GPP NR technology components. Some of the aforementioned requirements of IWSN use cases are also applicable to other wide-area use cases, such as wearables. For example, smart watches or heath-monitoring wearables require small device form factors and wireless operation with weeks, months, or years of battery life, while not requiring the most demanding latency or data rates. IWSN and wearable use cases therefore can motivate the introduction of an NR-based solution. Moreover, there are other reasons why it is motivated to introduce a native NR solution for this use case: It is desired to have a unified NR based solution.An NR solution could provide better coexistence with NR URLLC, e.g., allowing TDD configurations with better URLLC performance than LTE.An NR solution could provide more efficient coexistence with NR URLLC since the same numerology (e.g., SCS) can be adopted for the mMTC part and the URLLC part.An NR solution addresses all IMT-2020 5G frequency bands, including higher bands and TDD bands (in FR1 and FR2).The intention with this study item is to study a UE feature and parameter list with lower end capabilities, relative to Release 15 eMBB or URLLC NR, and identify the requirements which shall be fulfilled. E.g., requirements on UE battery life, latency, reliability, connection density, data rate, UE complexity and form factor, etc. If not available, new potential NR features for meeting these requirements should further be studied.There were other description of the SID from Samsung, ZTE, etc. but I am not detailing them here. The main idea is to provide an insight for people who may be curious about this feature.Related Posts:The 3G4G Blog - Ultra Reliability: 5x9s (99.999%) in 3GPP Release-15 vs 6x9s (99.9999%) in 3GPP Release-16The 3G4G Blog - 5G SpeedTests and Theoretical Max Speeds CalculationsThe 3G4G Blog - Updated 5G Terminology Presentation (Feb 2019)
3GPP Minimization of Drive Test (MDT) Signaling at a Glance
by firstname.lastname@example.org (Ralf Kreher) on August 5, 2019 at 8:32 am
There are growing numbers of UEs that are capable of reporting 3GPP-defined measurements for the purpose of minimization of drive test as defined in 3GPP TS 37.320. Although only a subset of the capable devices have this feature enabled it is worth to have a closer look at the signaling procedures and measurements.3GPP MDT data can be gathered in two different modes: immediate and logged.immediate mode – as illustrated in figure 1 - provides measurements for RAN and UE. The UE measurements are derived from RRC measurement reports. The RAN adds the power headroom reported on the MAC layer, and the Received Interference Power (RIP) measured on the physical radio interface layer at the cell`s antenna as well as, reports for the data volume, IP throughput, user plane packet delay, and packet loss measured by the eNodeB.Figure 1: Immediate 3GPP MDT Measurements*logged mode – an example is shown in Figure 2 - the UE stores information related to accessibility problems in IDLE mode, failures during RRC establishment, and handover random access as well as radio link failures including connection loss. The MDT events log is sent to the network when it is requested. After connection loss, the MDT logged mode report is sent after the next successful radio connection establishment.Figure 2: Logged 3GPP MDT Measurements*The RRC measurement samples and Radio Link Failure (RLF) reports also contain detailed location information for example, on GPS/GNSS coordinates, although the 3GPP Release 9 Technical Report TR 36.805 stated: “The extensive use of positioning component of the UE shall be avoided since it would significantly increase the UE power consumption.”Although, the encoding of logged mode reports and immediate UE measurements are defined in 3GPP TS 36.331 (RRC), the message formatting of the immediate RAN measurement events follow different proprietary specifications of the network element manufacturers (NEMs).It is also up to the NEMs which of the M2... M7 immediate reports are implemented and how often such measurements will be generated during an ongoing connection. * all parameter values shown in the figures have been chosen randomly for illustrative purpose and do not reflect the situation of a real call or network&nbs
An Introduction to Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTN)
by email@example.com (Zahid Ghadialy) on August 5, 2019 at 6:05 am
I made a short introductory tutorial explaining what is meant by Non-Terrestrial Networks. There is is lot of work on this that is planned for Release-17. Slides and video below. Beginners: Non Terrestrial Networks (NTN) from 3G4G Related Posts:The 3G4G Blog: Connectivity on Planes
What is meant by Infrastructure in a Telecoms Network?
by firstname.lastname@example.org (Zahid Ghadialy) on July 31, 2019 at 8:55 am
Here is our new tutorial explaining what is meant by Infrastructure in Telecoms Network. Slides and Video embedded below. Beginners: What is Infrastructure? from 3G4G Related Posts:Mobile Network Cell Tower Site ConstructionMobile Network Infrastructure Sharing in Japan over Electric Power InfrastructureQuick tutorial on Mobile Network Sharing OptionsNetwork Sharing is becoming more relevant with 5GVodafone UK improving coverage with Phone Boxes, Mini-masts & Manhole CoversNTT Docomo's Underground LTE Small Cells with possibility to deploy 5G in futur
Mobile Network Cell Tower Site Construction
by email@example.com (Zahid Ghadialy) on July 31, 2019 at 8:54 am
I attended an IET Prestige lecture by Phil Sheppard, Director of Strategy & Architecture at 3UK recently. He showed an interesting video on how a site is constructed. I combined some of his slides and video to show here. The video is as follows Related Posts:What is meant by Infrastructure in a Telecoms Network?Mobile Network Infrastructure Sharing in Japan over Electric Power InfrastructureQuick tutorial on Mobile Network Sharing OptionsNetwork Sharing is becoming more relevant with 5GVodafone UK improving coverage with Phone Boxes, Mini-masts & Manhole CoversNTT Docomo's Underground LTE Small Cells with possibility to deploy 5G in futur
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PwC: 5G is ‘just off the starting block’, with a marathon ahead
by Kelly Hill on August 22, 2019 at 4:08 pm
If the most popular metaphor for 5G is a race, then the industry is “just off the starting block,” according to analysis from PwC. There’s a marathon ahead, with some particularly tricky hurdles to navigate both in terms of deploying the technology and making it profitable — even if the hype cycle is “ramped up [...] The post PwC: 5G is ‘just off the starting block’, with a marathon ahead appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
Verizon turns up 5G in Phoenix, partners with Boingo on in-building
by Sean Kinney, Editor in Chief on August 22, 2019 at 3:53 pm
“Hyper-dense network” is focus of in-building 5G partnership between Verizon and Boingo In its push to launch millimeter wave-based 5G service in 30 cities by the end of the year, Verizon today lit up it’s new network In Phoenix. The carrier’s “5G Ultra Wideband” network is also available in Washington D.C., Atlanta, Detroit, Indianapolis, Chicago, [...] The post Verizon turns up 5G in Phoenix, partners with Boingo on in-building appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
Nokia dedicated Wi-Fi division tackles next-gen connectivity
by Catherine Sbeglia on August 22, 2019 at 3:16 pm
Head of Nokia Wi-Fi: “5G and Wi-Fi are going to be dominant wireless technologies” Providing Wi-Fi services is not new for Nokia; however, with significant Wi-Fi improvements on the horizon with the launch of 802.11ax, or Wi-Fi 6, the telecommunications vendor company established a new division within its ranks a few years ago that focuses almost exclusively [...] The post Nokia dedicated Wi-Fi division tackles next-gen connectivity appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
SK Telecom reaches 1 million 5G subscribers
by Juan Pedro Tomás on August 22, 2019 at 3:07 pm
Korean carrier SK Telecom claimed to be first mobile operator in the world to exceed the 1 million 5G subscriber mark, the company said in a release. This milestone was achieved on August 21. The company’s 5G subscribers currently represent more than 3.5% of its total subscriber base of 28 million. SK Telecom highlighted that [...] The post SK Telecom reaches 1 million 5G subscribers appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
Semiconductor industry preps workers as AI, 5G presence grows
by Catherine Sbeglia on August 22, 2019 at 3:03 pm
Accenture report shows semiconductor industry is preparing workers for new roles as tech continues to evolve According to the latest annual report by Accenture, which predicts key technology trends likely to redefine business over the next three years, the semiconductor industry is optimistic about emerging technology and how it will shape their industry. The adoption of artificial intelligence (AI), [...] The post Semiconductor industry preps workers as AI, 5G presence grows appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
Postscapes: Tracking the Internet of Things Tracking the Internet of Things: Projects, News, Companies and Resource Guides
Arduino adds two boards to its MKR family of products for new use cases
on May 26, 2018 at 12:00 pm
Arduino’s MKR family of products got two new wireless connectivity boards added to its range of products. These include MKR WiFi 1010 and MKR NB 1500, both aimed at streamlining IoT product/service development. Arduino MKR WiFi 1010Arduino’s blog notes that “the Arduino MKR WiFi 1010 is the new version of the MKR1000 with ESP32 module on board made by U-BLOX.” MKR WiFi 1010: For prototyping of WI-FI based IoT applications The core difference of MKR WiFi 1010 compared to MKR WiFi 1000 is that the former can be put to use in production-grade IoT apps and it has ESP32-based module manufactured by u-blox. The former enables to add 2.4GHz WiFi and Bluetooth capability to the application. Additionally, it comes with a programmable dual-processor system (an ARM processor and a dual-core Espressif IC). MKR NB 1500: For on-field monitoring systems and remote-controlled LTE-enabled modules The Arduino MKR NB 1500 is based on new low-power NB-IoT (narrowband IoT) standard. This makes it appropriate for IoT apps running over cellular/LTE networks. Arduino MKR NB 1500Key use cases of this board are remote monitoring systems and remote-controlled LTE-enabled modules. It supports AT&T, T-Mobile USA, Telstra, Verizon over the Cat M1/NB1 deployed bands 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 20 and 28. Arduino also pitches this board to be used in IoT apps which used to rely on alternative IoT networks such as LoRa and Sigfox. It promises to save power compared to GSM or 3G cellular-based connections. “The new boards bring new communication options to satisfy the needs of the most demanding use cases, giving users one of the widest range of options on the market of certified products.” Arduino co-founder and CTO Massimo Banz
Siemens to acquire smart lighting control company Enlighted Inc. for an undisclosed sum
on May 26, 2018 at 12:00 pm
Siemens Building Technologies division announced it will acquire Enlighted Inc., a smart IoT building technology provider. The transaction is expected to close in Q3’18. Enlighted Inc.’s core element is an advanced lighting control application. It is based on a patented, software-defined smart sensor that collects and monitors real-time occupancy, light levels, temperatures and energy usage. The sensor can gauge temperature, light level, motion, energy, and has Bluetooth connectivity. The Enlighted Micro SensorThe Enlighted system works by collecting temperature, light and motion data via its smart sensors. A gateway device carries the information to Energy Manager, a secure browser-based interface to create profiles and adjust settings of the entire Enlighted Advanced Lighting Control System. The Energy manager operates as an analytics device. The whole system consists of multi-function sensors, distributed computing, a network, and software applications run by Enlighted Inc. “With Siemens as a global partner, we will both accelerate innovation and market adoption of our smart building technologies on an international scale.”Joe Costello, Chairman, and CEO of Enlighted Inc Enlighted Inc.’s main target market is commercial real estate. Key use cases of its intelligent Lighting Control System are energy efficiency, controlling heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and building utilization reports. Use the Postscapes 'Connected Products Framework' to understand the smart home and buildings eco-system.
Smart lock company LockState closes $5.8M Series A to fast track sales & partnerships
on May 26, 2018 at 12:00 pm
Smart Lock Company LockState raised $5.8M Series A in new investment to fund its aggressive sales and marketing and partner development plan. The company previously raised $740K seed round and $1M in a round led by angel investors. The lead investor in latest round was Iron Gate Capital. Other investors include Kozo Keikaku Engineering Inc, Nelnet and Service Provider Capital. Access Control Dashboard and WiFi Smart LocksThe company’s Wi-Fi-enabled RemoteLock is used by 1000s of Airbnb and other vacation rental hosts. It helps hosts remotely provide access to guests. Locking/unlocking codes can be generated via a host’s computer or smartphone. RemoteLock’s prices start at $299 which is its algorithmic ResortLock. The most pricey lock by LockState is its ‘RemoteLock 7i Black WiFi Commercial Smart Lock’ which costs $479. Another core product of LockState is its cloud-based remote access platform for internet-enabled locks. It implies users can remotely manage their (internet-enabled) locks via LockState’s cloud platform. Unlike smartphones and watches, customers don’t look forward to upgrading their smart locks or buying one when new models are launched. Thus, smart lock companies offset this disadvantage by partnering with property management and short-term rental companies to get new customers. LockState has partnered with vacation rental brands like Airbnb, HomeAway, and other listing partners to automate guest access. “We are expanding our footprint and moving into a new warehouse office that is more than twice the size of our current office. We’re also staffing up our sales and marketing teams. We’ve accomplished a lot without investing heavily in marketing so we’ll support that area to keep our momentum going. We intend to expand into new business-to-business and enterprise verticals where we’re seeing the market grow. We are also dedicating budget toward development.” Nolan Mondrow, CEO of LockState in a statement released to news site Venture Beat Igloohome a Singapore-based smart lock company also raised an investment of $4M in April this year.
Smart baby monitor Nanit closes $14M Series B investment
on May 24, 2018 at 12:00 pm
Smart baby monitor company Nanit raised a $14M Series B round led by Jerusalem Venture Partners (JVP). Other investors that participated include existing investors Upfront Ventures, RRE Ventures, Vulcan Capital and Vaal Investment Partners. The latest investment brings total equity funding of Nanit to $30M. Nanit CameraNanit announced it will use the funding proceeds to expand its team of computer vision and machine learning engineers and grow its sales in Europe and Canada. Nanit’s baby monitor helps new parents oversee nursery conditions as it has built-in temperature and humidity sensors. The camera lets parents remotely monitor baby’s crib whereas sound and motion are detected via smart sensors. Nanit's mobile appThe monitor’s insights can be accessed via an accompanying mobile app. Nanit charges $10 per month for its premium package. The key use cases of Nanit’s baby monitoring technology include sleep insights, behavioral analysis, expert guidance, and nightly video summaries. The company currently sells its smart monitors via its website.
Microsoft buys conversational AI company Semantic Machines for an undisclosed sum
on May 24, 2018 at 12:00 pm
Microsoft announced it has acquired Semantic Machines, a conversational AI startup providing chatbots and AI chat apps founded in 2014 having $20.9 million in funding from investors. The acquisition will help Microsoft catch up with Amazon Alexa, though the latter is more focused on enabling consumer applications of conversational AI. Microsoft will use Semantic Machine’s acquisition to establish a conversational AI center of excellence in Berkeley to help it innovate in natural language interfaces. Microsoft has been stepping up its products in conversational AI. It launched the digital assistant Cortana in 2015, as well as social chatbots like XiaoIce. The latest acquisition can help Microsoft beef up its ‘enterprise AI’ offerings. As the use of NLP (natural language processing) increases in IoT products and services, more startups are getting traction from investors and established players. In June last year, Josh.ai, avoice-controlled home automation software has raised $8M. Followed by it was SparkCognition that raised $32.5M Series B for its NLP-based threat intelligence platform. It appears Microsoft’s acquisition of Semantic Machines was motivated by the latter’s strong AI team. The team includes technology entrepreneur Daniel Roth who sold his previous startups Voice Signal Technologies and Shaser BioScience for $300M and $100M respectively. Other team members include Stanford AI Professor Percy Liang, developer of Google Assistant Core AI technology and former Apple chief speech scientist Larry Gillick. “Combining Semantic Machines' technology with Microsoft's own AI advances, we aim to deliver powerful, natural and more productive user experiences that will take conversational computing to a new level." David Ku, chief technology officer of Microsoft AI & Research.