The 3G4G Blog Latest news and information on 3G, 4G, 5G wireless and technologies in general.
Challenges of 5G Inter-Node Handovers
by email@example.com (Ralf Kreher) on December 9, 2019 at 2:38 pm
In all mobile communication networks handovers are the most complex signaling procedures, because multiple network elements (or network functions) are involved. Thus, it is logical that dual connectivity with two different base stations contributing to the radio connection simultaneously are even more complicated. And in EN-DC these two base stations are often covering different footprints using different carrier frequencies.This leads to a situation where we have more options for performing a handover in detail compared with plain LTE handover scenarios before.The two signaling scenarios presented below illustrate in which different ways a change of the LTE master eNodeB can be performed during an ongoing EN-DC radio connection by using the X2 interface. In a very similar way it is also possible to perform S1 handover from old to new MeNB.The pros and cons of these options have been discussed already by Martin Sauter in his Wireless Moves blog.Inter-MeNB Handover without 5G Inter-Site AnchorFigure 1 shows the easiest way of handing over the signaling connection from one MeNB to another one. Here it is up to the new MeNB to decide if and how the 5G part of the radio connection is continued.Figure 1: X2 Handoverof EN-DC connection without 5G inter-site anchorThe handover is triggered when the UE sends a RRC Measurement Report (step 1) indicating that a stronger 4G cell than the currently used primary cell was measured. From its neighbor list the current MeNB detects that this better cell belongs to a neighbor eNB.To provide both, the the Master Cell Group (MCG) and Secondary Cell Group (SCG) parameters to this neighbor eNB the old MeNB queries the SCG configuration parameters from the old SgNB by performing the X2AP SgNB Modification procedure (step 2+3).Then it sends the X2AP Handover Request message to the target MeNB (step 4) including all information necessary to continue the 5G radio link in case the target MeNB decides to go for this option.However, what comes back from the target MeNB is a plain LTE handover command (LTE RRC Connection Reconfiguration message [step 6]) embedded in the X2AP Handover Request Acknowledge message (step 5).Due to this the old MeNB releases all 5G resources and the UE context in the SgNB (steps 7 + 10).After the UE successfully connected via radio interface with the target cell in the new MeNB the S1AP Path Switch procedure is executed to re-route the GTP/IP-Tunnels on S1-U (step 8) and releases the X2 UE context in the old MeNB (step 9)The new MeNB then waits for a new inter-RAT measurement event B1 (step 11) before starting a new SgNB addition procedure (step 12). Once the SgNB addition is successfully completed including all necessary reconfigurations/modifications on RRC and S1 the payload transmission over 5G resources is continued.Inter-MeNB Handover with 5G Inter-Site AnchorNow figure 2 shows what happens when the new MeNB decides to keep the existing UE context in the SgNB while the RRC measurement results and parameters are identical with what was presented above. Figure 2: X2 Handoverof EN-DC connection with 5G inter-site anchorThe difference in the call flow starts at step 5 when the new MeNB after receiving the X2AP Handover Request (step 4) starts the X2AP SgNB Addition procedure towards the SgNB (old = new!). The SgNB-UE-X2AP-ID earlier requested in step 2+3 acts as the reference number for the existing context that is going to be continued.After adding the SgNB UE context successfully the new MeNB sends the X2AP Handover Request Acknowledge message including an UE Context Kept = "true" flag and the Handover Command (step 8).After the UE successfully connected to the target cell of the new MeNB the S1AP Path Switch procedure is performed and the temporary X2 UE context between old and new MeNB is released (step 10).The big advantage of handling the handover in this way: The duration of the interruption of the payload transmission over 5G radio resources is minimalized and subscriber experience is significantly better compared to the scenario in figure 1.
5G Evolution with Matthew Baker, Nokia
by firstname.lastname@example.org (Zahid Ghadialy) on December 9, 2019 at 8:33 am
I wrote a summary of CW (Cambridge Wireless) TEC conference here a couple of months back. The last session was on "Getting ready for Beyond-5G Era". Matthew Baker, Head of Radio Physical Layer & Co-existence Standardization, Nokia Bell Labs was one of the speakers. His talk provided a summary of 3GPP Rel-15 and then gave a nice and short summary of all the interesting things coming in Rel-16 and being planned for Rel-17. The slides from his presentation is embedded below: 5G Evolution: Progressive Enhancement & N ew Features for New Markets from 3G4G Nokia also created a short video where Matthew talks about these new features. It's embedded below: Related Posts:Summary of #CWTEC 2019 Conference: 5G, Satellites & Magic MIMO5G and Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC)R&S Webinar on LTE-A Pro and evolution to 5GIntroduction to NR-Light a.k.a. NR-LiteAn Introduction to Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTN)
Introduction to 5G ATSSS - Access Traffic Steering, Switching and Splitting
by email@example.com (Zahid Ghadialy) on December 2, 2019 at 9:02 pm
Last month we made a short tutorial on 5G and Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC). One of the features covered in that was ATSSS. It deserved a bit more detail so we made a short tutorial on this feature.Access Traffic Steering, Switching and Splitting or ATSSS for short is being standardized as part of 3GPP Rel-16 and allows traffic steering across multiple accesses at a finer granularities than a PDU session. It is an optional feature both on the UE and the 5GC network. ATSSS introduces the notion of Multi Access PDU session, a PDU session for which the data traffic can be served over one or more concurrent accesses (3GPP access, trusted non-3GPP access and untrusted non-3GPP access). The simplest way to visualize it is as shown below:The presentation and video is embedded below: Misc: Introduction to ATSSS - Access Traffic Steering, Switching and Splitting from 3G4G Related Posts:Exploring Network Convergence of Mobile, Broadband and Wi-Fi5G and Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC)BT's Converged Core to Launch in 2023Tutorial: Service Based Architecture (SBA) for 5G Core (5GC)Updated 5G Terminology Presentation (Feb 2019)
5G and Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC)
by firstname.lastname@example.org (Zahid Ghadialy) on December 2, 2019 at 9:00 pm
We recently made a new video looking at how 5G architecture caters for Trusted and Untrusted Wireless Access as well as Wireline Access. The presentation discusses:Untrusted non-3GPP access networks;Trusted non-3GPP access networks (TNAN);Wireline access networks;Non-5G-Capable over WLAN (N5CW);Access Traffic Steering, Switching and Splitting (ATSSS)Slides and video embedded below. Advanced: True Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) with 5G from 3G4G Related Posts:Exploring Network Convergence of Mobile, Broadband and Wi-FiIntroduction to 5G ATSSS - Access Traffic Steering, Switching and SplittingOperator Watch Blog: BT's Converged Core to Launch in 2023Tutorial: Service Based Architecture (SBA) for 5G Core (5GC)Updated 5G Terminology Presentation (Feb 2019)An Introduction to Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTN)3G4G: 3GPP 5G Specifications3G4G: 5G (IMT-2020) WirelessOpinion: What is "Real 5G" or "True 5G"The Politics of Standalone vs Non-Standalone 5G & 4G SpeedsNew 3GPP Release-17 Study Item on NR-Lite5G SpeedTests and Theoretical Max Speeds Calculations
Guest Post: Exploring Network Convergence of Mobile, Broadband and Wi-Fi
by email@example.com (Zahid Ghadialy) on December 2, 2019 at 11:44 am
This is a guest post by Ben Toner, Founder and Director, Numerous NetworksAre multiple networks better than one?How many articles have you read with a title similar to "Which technology is better, 5G or Wi-Fi6?" If, like me, you regularly use Wi-Fi and cellular (I still use 4G though) then you might find it hard to take sides.Enter Network Convergence - the concept of bringing multiple networks together to get the best of them all. Imagine, as an end user, not having to decide which network to use but instead feeling satisfied that your data was traversing the best combination of networks at that moment in time.Imagine a business traveler being connected to Wi-Fi which is slow or busy while trying to take that all important conference call while sitting in an airport. Because you are roaming you want to use that Wi-Fi but you do not want to compromise the video call quality. If your network and device could work together to use just enough cellular data to supplement the slow Wi-Fi so that you stayed within your daily roaming quota but never lost a moment in the video call - then you would probably be very happy with that service. Better still, as you start walking off, if the call transitioned from Wi-Fi to cellular with no dropouts or hangup then you might be delighted!Earlier I underlined best because that in itself is somewhat complicated. The example above is easy to desribe but quite hard for to achieve within a framework where all possible scenarios are handled that well, for every user. The common questions which need to be factored into any such choice are:What do I as the end user want? What performance can each network deliver. How important is the transfer of content at that time and How much am I willing to pay for it (how many MB of my data plan am I willing to use?). This is one of the challenges that we cannot easily solve today, but technology is being developed to help in that process. The operators and device vendors are working within standardisation to develop technology which can provide such a converged service. However at this time there is still a rules mechanism behind it all which does not really describe how user input and preference is going to be captured.In the last 10 years I have witnessed many battles within service providers when deciding what "one size fits all" service to offer everyone when deciding how to make service provider Wi-Fi available to their customers; all fuelled by my points above.A lot of concepts are well designed and somewhat mature but deciding exactly what will be implemented in standards is currently ongoing.In the following slides and video I introduce this whole concept of Network Convergence. The following content introduces the concept and then takes a detailed look at the ATSSS; technology being defined in 3GPP. I also have highlighted the technologoies you can get hold of today to try out network convergence.I encourage you all to download the example technologies and try convergence for yourself. I'm eager to hear opinions of what technologies work best for each of you. And better still, what is not being provided which you think should be...Looking forward to your feedback and answering your questions... Network Convergence of Mobile, Broadband and Wi-Fi from 3G4G Ben TonerFounder and Director, Numerous NetworksRelated Posts:Introduction to 5G ATSSS - Access Traffic Steering, Switching and SplittingBT's Converged Core to Launch in 20235G and Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC)Tutorial: Service Based Architecture (SBA) for 5G Core (5GC)Updated 5G Terminology Presentation (Feb 2019)
Ligado CEO urges FCC to make decision now on L-band
by Monica Alleven on December 9, 2019 at 9:15 pm
Despite making commitments to satisfy the GPS community, Ligado Networks is still getting push-back, including from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA).
Telefonica taps Huawei for 5G core, as DT freezes 5G deals amid uncertainty
by Bevin Fletcher on December 9, 2019 at 4:59 pm
Telefonica will source 5G gear from multiple vendors, but has selected Huawei as one supplier for its 5G core network.
AT&T expects to test IAB in 2020, use it more widely in 2021
by Monica Alleven on December 9, 2019 at 3:46 pm
One of the tools in 3GPP Release 15 related to the 5G standard is something called Integrated Access and Backhaul (IAB) for—you guessed it—backhaul in 5G.
Marek’s Take: 5G is in its infancy, and consumers are already confused
by Sue Marek on December 6, 2019 at 10:00 pm
Operators have muddied the 5G waters by introducing different “flavors” of 5G – from 5G+ to 5GE to Ultra Wideband 5G and more.
Editor’s Corner: T-Mobile’s OnePlus 5G McLaren impresses, to a point
by Monica Alleven on December 6, 2019 at 5:50 pm
For all the touting that T-Mobile has done about the greatness of its 600 MHz 5G network, the materials that came with the loaner phone note that at launch, 5G users may experience “incremental speed boosts” compared to T-Mobile’s LTE. In some areas, speeds may be the same as LTE today.
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Broadcom Boasts ‘World’s First’ 25.6 Tb/s Switch Silicon
by Matt Kapko on December 9, 2019 at 11:14 pm
Ericsson Corruption Probe Takes $1B Bite
by Matt Kapko on December 9, 2019 at 6:30 pm
Adlink Tackles Industrial IoT as Latest 5G-Drive Member
by Tobias Mann on December 9, 2019 at 6:26 pm
Money Moves: November 2019
by Sydney Sawaya on December 9, 2019 at 4:20 pm
Segment Routing (SR) – What You Need To Know
by SDx Syndication on December 9, 2019 at 3:30 pm
RCR Wireless News Intelligence on all things wireless.
Etisalat standalone 5G test achieves 3.1 Gbps download throughput
by Catherine Sbeglia on December 9, 2019 at 5:54 pm
Etisalat recently recognized as the fastest mobile network in MENA region Telecom services operator Etisalat already made headlines for completing the first end-to-end standalone 5G call in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region back in October. Now, the company is back in the spotlight after achieving over 3.1 Gbps download throughput over its [...] The post Etisalat standalone 5G test achieves 3.1 Gbps download throughput appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
After Arris acquisition, CommScope realigns business segments
by Kelly Hill on December 9, 2019 at 4:59 pm
As CommScope heads into 2020, the company is realigning its business into four segments in the wake of its major acquisition of communications and video hardware and software company Arris and enterprise Wi-Fi provider Ruckus Networks. CommScope completed its $7.4 billion acquisition of Arris (which included Ruckus) in April of this year, which greatly expanded [...] The post After Arris acquisition, CommScope realigns business segments appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
Kagan: Why Qualcomm is important to USA in 5G race
by Jeff Kagan on December 9, 2019 at 4:07 pm
The 5G wireless race is on and there is a debate raging over whether the USA or China will lead. Current leaders are companies like Qualcomm and Huawei. Many say China based Huawei has the early lead. Qualcomm is the American company and technology leader. I have been studying this issue and the answer is [...] The post Kagan: Why Qualcomm is important to USA in 5G race appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
The Sunday Brief: Programming tomorrow’s network
by Jim Patterson on December 9, 2019 at 3:46 pm
Holiday greetings from sunny and mild Lake Norman, North Carolina (sunrise shown – unaltered photo). There are a lot of follow-ups to cover, and, if reports are true, there may even be a settlement between the Attorneys General and T-Mobile/ Deutsche Telekom/ Sprint/ Softbank prior to their trial start on Monday (hope springs eternal). Many [...] The post The Sunday Brief: Programming tomorrow’s network appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
Security vs. Privacy: What’s the distinction in the 5G era?
by RCR Wireless News and Huawei on December 9, 2019 at 3:07 pm
Mobile broadband has fundamentally changed the way people and businesses go through their day-to-day tasks both personal and professional. Today 5G is available in dozens of countries with operators around the world prepping to launch and further scale the next-generation of wireless. In addition to delivering an enhanced mobile broadband experience, 5G will serve [...] The post Security vs. Privacy: What’s the distinction in the 5G era? appeared first on RCR Wireless News.
Papers – GSA GSA Global mobile Suppliers Association representing GSM/EDGE, WCDMA-HSPA, LTE LTE-Advanced, LTE Advanced Pro, 5G, IoT suppliers providing market facts & trends
Spectrum Above 6 GHz – December 2019
by Joe Barrett on December 3, 2019 at 11:07 am
Spectrum Above 6 GHz. This report provides a snapshot of the global status of national usage of spectrum above 6 GHz… The post Spectrum Above 6 GHz – December 2019 appeared first on GSA.
LTE 5G and 3GPP IoT Chipsets – Snapshot: December 2019
by Joe Barrett on December 2, 2019 at 11:07 am
LTE 5G IoT Chipsets report GSA’s database covers discrete cellular LTE and 5G modem SoCs, mobile processors and device platforms*,… The post LTE 5G and 3GPP IoT Chipsets – Snapshot: December 2019 appeared first on GSA.
Unlicensed Spectrum Snapshot – December 2019
by Joe Barrett on December 2, 2019 at 10:57 am
Unlicensed Spectrum Snapshot 38 operators investing in Licensed Assisted Access (LAA) across 21 countries. 8 of these have announced LAA… The post Unlicensed Spectrum Snapshot – December 2019 appeared first on GSA.
Importance of Mobile Spectrum – 1-6 GHz Report
by Joe Barrett on November 27, 2019 at 9:58 pm
Importance of Mobile Spectrum It is clear, with the number of spectrum awards expected over the coming years that the… The post Importance of Mobile Spectrum – 1-6 GHz Report appeared first on GSA.
Ericsson Mobility Report Nov-2019
by Joe Barrett on November 26, 2019 at 9:03 am
5G momentum continues Ericsson Mobility Report Nov-2019 5G goes from strength to strength as networks are built out across the… The post Ericsson Mobility Report Nov-2019 appeared first on GSA.